We studied two patients with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in order to determine the molecular defect. A new assay for 3-methylglutaconyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase has been developed in which the substrate, [5-14C]3-methylglutaconyl-CoA, was synthesized using 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase purified from bovine kidney. In this assay the products of the reaction are isolated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and the rates of conversion from substrate are measured. The Michaelis constant for 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA in normal fibroblasts was 6.9 mumol/liter. The mean activity of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase in control fibroblasts was 495 pmol/min per mg protein. In the two patients the values were 11 and 17 pmol/min per mg protein, or 2-3% of normal.
K Narisawa, K M Gibson, L Sweetman, W L Nyhan, M Duran, S K Wadman
Previous investigations in normal humans and rats have shown an increase in insulin sensitivity and binding affinity of adipocytes isolated 1-3 h after glucose ingestion. To determine whether a rapid enhancement of the action of insulin follows glucose ingestion in vivo, the present studies have utilized 120-min 20 mU/m2 X min euglycemic insulin infusions before and after 7.5-, 15-, 25-, and 100-g oral glucose loads. Euglycemic insulin infusions after the carbohydrate challenge were begun after arterialized blood glucose and insulin values had returned to baseline. After 15- and 25-g oral glucose loads during the 20-120-min interval of insulin infusion, glucose infusion rates increased by 44 +/- 6% (P less than 0.0001) and 47 +/- 9% (P less than 0.0002), respectively. No significant differences in arterialized glucose or insulin values existed between basal and post-glucose insulin infusions. In addition, no significant differences in hepatic glucose production or counter-regulatory hormone levels were found between basal and post-glucose insulin infusions. Control infusion studies including subjects who ingested saline or mannitol failed to show an increase in insulin action. Studies were carried out to mimic the insulin curve seen after 15- and 25-g oral glucose loads. Euglycemic insulin infusions after these insulin simulation studies show a 34 +/- 7% enhancement compared to baseline euglycemic insulin infusions. These results demonstrate a rapid enhancement of insulin action after oral glucose challenge in normal humans. The insulin simulation studies suggest that insulin itself either directly or through release of another factor acts on muscle to increase insulin sensitivity. The increase in insulin action demonstrated in these investigations may represent an important regulatory mechanism to modulate tissue insulin sensitivity.
W J Kingston, J N Livingston, R T Moxley 3rd
In vitro lipoprotein lipase enhances the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated transfer of cholesteryl esters from high density lipoproteins (HDL) to very low density lipoproteins as a result of lipolysis-induced alterations in lipoprotein lipids that lead to increased binding of CETP. To determine if there are similar changes during alimentary lipemia, we measured the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to apo B-containing lipoproteins in incubated fasting and postprandial plasma. In seven normolipidemic subjects there was 2-3-fold stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer in alimentary lipemic plasma. Cholesteryl ester transfer was stimulated when either the d less than 1.063-or d greater than 1.063-g/ml fraction of lipemic plasma was recombined with its complementary fraction of fasting plasma. To determine the distribution of CETP, plasma was fractionated by agarose chromatography and CETP activity was measured in column fractions in a standardized assay. In fasting plasma, most of the CETP was in smaller HDL, and a variable fraction was nonlipoprotein bound. During lipemia there was increased binding of CETP to larger phospholipid-enriched HDL and in two subjects an increase in CETP in apo B-containing lipoproteins. The total CETP activity of fractions of lipemic plasma was increased 1.1-1.7-fold compared with fasting plasma. Lipemic CETP activity was also increased when measured in lipoprotein-free fractions after dissociation of CETP from the lipoproteins. When purified CETP was incubated with phospholipid-enriched HDL isolated from alimentary lipemic or phospholipid vesicle-treated plasma, there was increased binding of CETP to the phospholipid-enriched HDL compared with fasting HDL, with a parallel stimulation in CETP activity. Thus, the pronounced stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer during alimentary lipemia is due to (a) an increased mass of triglyceride-rich acceptor lipoproteins, (b) a redistribution of CETP, especially increased binding to larger phospholipid-enriched HDL, and (c) an increase in total activity of CETP, perhaps due to an increased CETP mass.
A Tall, D Sammett, E Granot
The effects of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) on the in vitro differentiation of human tonsillar B cells which were not preincubated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I or with anti-human IgM were investigated. IL-2 was shown to induce the generation of Ig-containing cells in a dose-dependent fashion from 2.5 to 2,500 U IL-2/ml. Conversely, the quantities of Ig secreted in the culture supernatant were found in the majority of experiments to peak at 25 U/ml. The possible presence, in cultures stimulated with IL-2, of cells that were capable of synthesizing Ig but that did not secrete the Ig they have produced was investigated. Among a number of factors tested, we found that gamma-interferon, which did not trigger in vitro B cell differentiation when used alone, can induce an increased secretion of Ig without noticeable change in the number of Ig-containing cells in cultures stimulated with IL-2. The possibility that gamma-interferon and IL-2 act on subsequent steps of in vitro B cell differentiation is discussed.
. L® thi Bich-Thuy, A S Fauci
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) traverse basement membrane to reach sites of infection. We have studied the role of laminin, a specific basement membrane component, in this process using three assay systems. In the Boyden chamber, laminin was found to stimulate chemotaxis of neutrophils while fibronectin did not. Co-incubation of cells with antibody to laminin blocked this chemotaxis, while antibody to fibronectin was without effect. In the human amnion system, neutrophils were shown to penetrate through the tissue when the peptide chemoattractant f-Met-Leu-Phe was placed on the opposing side. Antibody to laminin, but not to fibronectin, blocked this penetration. In an attachment assay system, laminin, but not fibronectin, was found to increase dispase-treated neutrophil attachment to type IV (basement membrane) collagen-coated plastic and to a plastic substrate itself. Electrophoretic analysis of PMN extract indicated the presence of laminin, and indirect immunofluorescence suggested that laminin is localized on the surface of the neutrophils. These data suggest that PMN can bind laminin on their cell surfaces, use laminin to attach to basement (type IV) membrane collagen, and migrate toward a gradient of laminin. These properties may be important for the passage of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of infection.
V P Terranova, R DiFlorio, E S Hujanen, R M Lyall, L A Liotta, U Thorgeirsson, G P Siegal, E Schiffmann
Isolated lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, defined as a transient sphincteric relaxation unaccompanied by esophageal peristalsis, has been shown to precede most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux in humans. We studied the genesis of isolated LES relaxation in anesthetized opossums by observing the response of four components of the deglutition reflex (mylohyoid electrical activity, pharyngeal contraction, esophageal peristalsis, and LES relaxation) to pharyngeal tactile stimulation, electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) afferents or cervical vagal efferents, and to balloon distention of the esophageal body. A single pharyngeal stroking evoked isolated LES relaxation in 56% of 160 instances. The proportion of isolated relaxations in response to SLN electrical stimulation varied inversely with the stimulus frequency, occurring in 64% of the responses at 5 Hz and 4% of the responses at 30 Hz. A full four-component deglutition sequence was most likely to occur at the higher frequencies of SLN electrical stimulation. Esophageal balloon distention elicited isolated LES relaxations or no response at low distending volumes, whereas at higher volumes LES relaxation and esophageal contraction predominated. Isolated LES relaxation had significantly less magnitude than relaxations accompanied by esophageal contractions. Bilateral cervical vagotomy abolished all LES and esophageal body responses induced by pharyngeal stroking and SLN stimulation, and rendered the esophageal body and LES less responsive to small volumes of distention. Vagal efferent stimulation produced isolated LES relaxation at lower frequency stimulation and LES relaxation with esophageal contractions at higher frequency stimulation. These studies show that isolated LES relaxation represents incomplete expression of either the deglutitive reflex or the peripheral reflex mediating secondary peristalsis.
W G Paterson, S Rattan, R K Goyal
A partial gene product was identified in a pedigree with hemophilia B due to a partial deletion of the Factor IX gene (Chen, S.-H.,S. Yoshitake, P.F. Chance, G.L. Bray, A.R. Thompson, C.R. Scott, and K. Kurachi, 1985, J. Clin. Invest., 76:2161-2164). Levels of this mutant protein in plasma of affected family members studied ranged from 24 to 36 ng/ml (0.6-0.9 U/dl or percent of normal) by a solid-phase immunoassay which is sensitive and specific for the calcium-dependent conformation of human Factor IX. No Factor IX antigen could be detected in patients' plasmas by a non-calcium-requiring monoclonal anti-Factor IX antibody (less than 2 ng/ml). The unconcentrated urine from the five affected family members and four obligate heterozygotes the five affected family members and four obligate heterozygotes tested contained calcium-dependent Factor IX antigen levels ranging from 64 to 160 ng/ml (1.6-4.0 U/dl) and from 10 to 68 ng/ml (0.25-1.7 U/dl), respectively. Of nine normal volunteers screened, three had detectable calcium-dependent antigen in unconcentrated first morning-voided urines with 9.6-16.8 ng/ml (0.24-0.42 U/dl), while the remaining six had detectable urinary antigen only after a 10-fold concentration. Abnormal and normal urinary Factor IX antigen species were concentrated, immunoaffinity purified, electrophoresed, immunoblotted, and distinguished by autoradiography after incubation with 125I-polyclonal calcium-requiring anti-Factor IX. After reducing purified or concentrated samples, a single abnormal 36,000-mol-wt band was identified in the urines from the four affected family members and four obligate heterozygotes tested. Electrophoresis of the reduced urinary Factor IX antigen from the one normal subject tested showed a broad 15,000-20,000-mol-wt band. This normal band was smaller than the species in patients' urines, and was seen as a minor component in the samples from the heterozygotes. No abnormal antigen could be detected in urine from the two other female family members tested. Thus, abnormal urinary Factor IX antigen represents a marker for the presence of the hemophilic Factor IX gene in this family.
G L Bray, A R Thompson
The mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in acromegaly were investigated. Adipose tissue was obtained from nine patients with acromegaly who had in vivo insulin resistance and from 14 matched healthy control subjects. Receptor binding and the antilipolytic effect of insulin were determined in isolated fat cells. Insulin-induced glucose oxidation at a physiological hexose concentration was investigated in fat segments. In fat cells obtained from acromegaly patients after an overnight fast, insulin binding at low hormone concentrations was significantly reduced by 20-30%, insulin-induced antilipolysis was unchanged, but glucose oxidation was unresponsive to insulin. Since it has recently been observed that glucose feeding may rapidly modify insulin action in human adipocytes, fat cells were also obtained 60 min after an 100-g oral glucose load. In this situation, insulin binding at low hormone concentrations was further reduced to one-half of that in the control group, and the sensitivity of insulin-induced antilipolysis was markedly decreased in acromegaly. It is concluded that, in the fasting state, the action of insulin on glucose utilization but not on lipolysis is impaired in adipose tissue of acromegalic patients because of a postreceptor defect. After glucose ingestion, the resistance to insulin in acromegaly is further enhanced and antilipolysis is also impaired. Altered coupling between receptor and effector alone or in combination with an additional decrease in receptor binding may explain the enhancement of insulin resistance. These mechanisms may be essential factors in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in acromegaly.
J Bolinder, J Ostman, S Werner, P Arner
Biosynthesis and secretion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1 PI) has been demonstrated in primary cultures of human mononuclear phagocytes, making it possible to study regulation of alpha 1 PI in normal (PiMM) and homozygous-deficient (PiZZ) individuals. In this study, expression of alpha 1 PI by blood monocytes, bronchoalveolar, and breast milk macrophages decreased during 1 wk in culture whereas expression of other secreted proteins increased. The addition of crude supernatants from mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells to confluent monolayers of mononuclear phagocytes after 1 wk in culture resulted in a 2- to 2.5-fold increase in alpha 1 PI expression. The increase in alpha 1 PI expression was dose- and time-dependent, and involved a mechanism acting at a pretranslational level as shown by an increase in specific messenger RNA content corresponding to the increase in synthesis and secretion of alpha 1 PI. Although alpha 1 PI was expressed in native form and in forms complexed with serine protease by monocytes early in culture, it was expressed in its native form alone when monocytes were incubated with the lymphokine after 1 wk in culture. The regulating factor had the characteristics of a polypeptide and was derived from T lymphocytes, but it was not interferon-alpha, -beta, -gamma, or interleukin 2. This lymphokine also stimulated synthesis of alpha 1 PI in monocytes of homozygous-deficient PiZZ individuals, but had minimal effect on secretion, thereby increasing the intracellular accumulation of the inhibitor and exaggerating the defect in secretion of alpha 1 PI in these individuals. Regulation of mononuclear phagocyte alpha 1 PI expression by a lymphokine provides a model for further analysis of the effect of enhanced synthesis on a defect in posttranslational processing/secretion and for analysis of differential regulation of protease and inhibitor expressed in the same cells.
S Takemura, T H Rossing, D H Perlmutter
Thyroxine (T4) and reverse triiodothyronine are potent inhibitors of brown adipose T4 5'-deiodinase (BAT 5'D). This effect does not require protein synthesis and is due to an acceleration of the rate of disappearance of the enzyme. Growth hormone (GH) also inhibits BAT 5'D but by a mechanism mediated through a long-lived messenger that correlates with growth rate. This explains the failure of BAT 5'D to increase abruptly after thyroidectomy as does the type II 5'-deiodinase in pituitary and central nervous system or the BAT 5'D itself after hypophysectomy. Although virtually inactive when given acutely, triiodothyronine replacement partially reduces BAT 5'D in hypophysectomized and thyroidectomized (Tx) animals probably as a result of improvement of systemic hypothyroidism and an increase in GH levels in the Tx rats. The fine balance between these inhibitory factors and the stimulatory effects of the sympathetic nervous system suggests an important physiologic role for the enzyme in this tissue.
J E Silva, P R Larsen